Research

Proposed Revisions to the Volcker Rule—Prohibitions and Restrictions on Proprietary Trading and Certain Interests in, and Relationships with, Hedge Funds and Private Equity Funds

July 2018 | Mark V. Nuccio and Gideon Blatt, Ropes & Gray


On May 30, 2018, the Federal Reserve Board issued a notice of proposed rulemaking and asked for comment on a proposed rule to simplify and tailor compliance requirements relating to the regulation implementing section 13 (commonly known as the “Volcker Rule”) of the Bank Holding Company Act (“BHC Act”) (the “Proposal”). The Proposal was developed jointly with the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (together, the “Agencies”).

Private Equity and Hedge Funds in Puerto Rico - a Welcoming Environment in the Caribbean

May 2018 | Nikos Buxeda, Manuel López-Zambrana, Camille Alvarez and Juan Carlos Feliciano, DLA Piper


Ten years ago, private equity funds and hedge funds were practically nonexistent in Puerto Rico. This has changed dramatically as the result of two main developments: the enactment of Act 185-2014, known as the Private Equity Funds Act and (ii) the influx of financial industry professionals moving to the island to take advantage of the tax benefits available under Acts 20 and 22 (for a more detailed discussion of those benefits, please see Puerto Rico's Act 20 and Act 22 – key tax benefits).

New Regulations Increase Uncertainties Regarding Chinese Investments in Offshore Funds

April 2018 | Serena Tan, Ken W. Muller, Stephanie C. Thomas, Jason R. Nelms and Chuan Liu, Morrison & Foerster LLP


On March 1, 2018, the Administrative Measures for Outbound Investments by Enterprises (??????????) (“Circular 11”) issued by the National Development and Reform Commission (the “NDRC”) went into effect. In addition to regulating direct outbound investments by Chinese companies in general, Circular 11 introduces a new regulatory framework administered by the NDRC governing Chinese companies’ sponsorship of, and investment in, offshore private equity investment funds.

Independent Directors on Hedge Fund and Private Equity Boards - The Cayman Trend

March 2018 | Joanne Huckle, Ogier


It has become an established industry norm to see independent directors appointed to the boards of offshore hedge funds. It is no longer a 'check box exercise' to confirm independent directors have been appointed. Institutional investors are increasingly concerned about the composition of the board, the experience and skill set of its members and the day to day relationship between both the board members themselves and the board and the investment manager.

New Guidelines on Investment by Private Equity Funds in Insurers

March 2018 | Shubhangi Pathak and Priya Misra, Tuli & Co


By way of a June 10 2016 order, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI) set up a committee to evaluate the risk-based capital approach and market-consistent valuation of liabilities of Indian insurance business. The committee's report, released on July 17 2017, noted that after almost 15 years of promoter-run business (almost all existing entities are joint ventures with foreign companies), the Indian insurance industry is still dominated by government-owned public sector companies, and private insurance players in India are largely owned by well-established businesses.

Private Equity and Venture Capital in the UK

March 2018 | James Taylor and Mark Saunders, Osborne Clarke


By a number of measures, private equity transactions hit a post-financial crisis high in the UK in 2017. An abundance of dry powder and more relaxed debt terms from lenders, combined with the rates at which private equity sponsors are able to raise bonds and loans reaching all-time lows, has contributed to a busy 12 months for the market. This growth may also be in part attributable to private equity funds having become more comfortable with the new political landscape in the UK, as the dust begins to settle 18 months on from the Brexit referendum.

US Tax Reform - Provisions Impacting Private Equity

February 2018 | Patricia W. McDonald, Baker McKenzie


On December 15, 2017, a Conference Committee established by the House of Representatives and the Senate released a unified agreement on the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” (the “Conference Agreement”) in the wake of the passages of the House version of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act on November 16, 2017, and the Senate version on December 2, 2017.

Fund of Funds Financing: Secondary Facilities for PE Funds and Hedge Funds

October 2016 | Zachary K. Barnett, Todd Bundrant, Mark Dempsey & Ann Richardson Knox, Mayer Brown


Real estate, buyout, infrastructure, debt, secondary, energy and other closed-end funds (each, a ‘Fund’) frequently seek to obtain the benefits of a subscription credit facility (a ‘Subscription Facility’). However, to the extent that uncalled capital commitments may not be available to support a Subscription Facility (for example, following expiration of the applicable investment or commitment period, a Fund’s organisational documentation does not contemplate a Subscription Facility) or a Subscription Facility already exists, alternative fund-level financing solutions may be available to Funds based on the inherent value of their investment portfolios (each, an ‘Investment’).

Bullseye: M&A Deal Trends - What Private Equity is Doing Differently

April 2016 | Mark McNamara, Ros Anderson and Alex Elser, King & Wood Mallesons


King & Wood Mallesons recently launched its five annual DealTrends report (Report) for private M&A in Australia. The Report draws off actual private M&A deal data in the Australian market and is the only one of its kind currently being produced for the Australian market. The Report gives insight into the changes in market practice for private M&A and the data collected allows us to differentiate for a variety of factors, including deals involving PE sponsors. Below we highlight the standout trends in private M&A over the last five years, recent material developments and areas in which PE sponsors are significantly diverging from the broader M&A market.

2016 Annual Compliance Dates: SEC-Registered Investment Advisers to Private Funds

February 2016 | Elizabeth Kemery Sipes, Mark W. Weakley and Rafael E. Mendez, Bryan Cave


In 2010 the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank) eliminated the private fund adviser exemption. Prior to Dodd-Frank, many managers to hedge funds and private equity funds relied on this exemption from registration as investment advisers. After Dodd-Frank, many private investment fund managers were required to register with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) as investment advisers. These investment advisers are now subject to significant on-going compliance obligations and examination by the SEC.

Hong Kong Profits Tax Exemption for Private Equity Funds

February 2016 | Angelyn Lim, Dechert


The Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No.2) Ordinance 2015 (the ‘Amendment Ordinance’) came into effect on July 17, 2015, extending Hong Kong profits tax exemption to offshore private equity (PE) funds.

The Coming SEC Sweep in Hedge Funds

February 2016 | Don Andrews, Venable LLP


In 2014, the SEC formed the Private Funds Unit (PFU), a multi-disciplinary task force designed to specifically address matters that had surfaced during their initial round of ‘presence examinations’ for private funds, which commenced in 2012. Since that time, much has happened. Examinations revealed material weaknesses and deficiencies among private equity firms in the areas of valuation, performance reporting, disclosure to limited partners and conflicts of interest. The staff of the SEC has commenced enforcement actions against a number of private equity firms and indicated that the industry can expect additional enforcement actions related to the above issues.

Insurance Capital Can Now Be Used to Form Private Equity Funds in PRC

November 2015 | Yuan Min and Will McCosker, King & Wood Mallesons


The China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) recently issued new regulations that relax restrictions on the investment of insurance proceeds by allowing insurance capital to be used for the formation of private equity funds within the PRC. The Circular of the China Insurance Regulatory Commission on Matters relating to the Formation of Insurance Private Equity Funds (the Circular) was released on 10 September 2015 and aims to further enhance the unique advantages of the long-term investment of insurance funds, support economic development and prevent potential risks. The Circular sets out the categories, investment objectives, governance structure, management and operation and registration and regulation of private equity funds formed by insurance capital (insurance PE funds).

Family Office Direct Investing in Private Equity Deals

September 2015 | John A. Rogers, Pepper Hamilton LLP


For most family offices, engaging in direct investment PE deals really means finding the right partner, and the diligence required to find the right PE partner for direct deals is much more involved, and probably less of a metric-based exercise than selecting a good asset manager.

Hong Kong Implements Profits Tax Exemption for Offshore Private Equity Funds

August 2015 | Austin Sweeney, Tommy Tong and Susan Leung, Herbet Smith Freehills


On 17 July 2015, the Inland Revenue (Amendment) (No.2) Ordinance 2015 (Amendment Ordinance) was published in the Gazette. The Amendment Ordinance, which takes effect retrospectively from 1 April 2015, extends the existing profits tax exemption benefiting non-residents (offshore funds) to effectively allow offshore private equity funds to take advantage of the exemption.

Private Equity and Hedge Fund Managers Take Caution – Proposed Treasury Regulations Threaten Management Fee Waivers

August 2015 | Karl P. Fryzel, Rebecca Melaas and Michael J. Conroy, Locke Lord LLP


On July 23, 2015, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued long-awaited proposed regulations discussing the taxation of management fee arrangements commonly used by private equity funds and their management. The proposed regulations address the tax treatment of disguised payments for services under Section 707(a)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code (the Code) where a partner has rendered services to a partnership in a capacity as other than a partner. By specifically classifying certain fee arrangements, including particular carried interest mechanisms, as disguised payments for services, the proposed regulations target purportedly abusive situations where private equity funds use management fee waivers to convert services income, taxable at the ordinary rates, into income items meriting capital gain treatment.

Widening the Scope: the SEC Turns Its Attention to Alternative Mutual Funds

August 2014 | Nicholas Lewis, McGuireWoods LLP


In a recent speech to the Practising Law Institute’s Private Equity Forum, Norm Champ, Director of the SEC’s Division of Investment Management, discussed the SEC’s increasing attention to the growth in ‘alternative mutual funds’, or open-end mutual funds that feature investment strategies more typically seen in private funds. Similar to recent speeches and discussions related to the SEC’s oversight of hedge funds, previously discussed in this newsletter last November, Champ’s speech contained useful guidance about the types of risks the SEC is monitoring in the alternative mutual fund space, but it also conveyed that the SEC will be ramping up inspection into whether investment advisers to these funds are fully complying with their duties.

Hedge Fund and Private Equity Fund Secured Loans and the Volcker Rule

January 2014 | Bryan G. Petkanics and Paul W.A. Severin, Loeb & Loeb LLP


Loans secured by interests in hedge funds and, to a lesser extent, private equity funds have been a staple of many banks’ credit offerings for years. However, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Pub. L. 111-203, H.R. 4173) (Dodd-Frank) in general, and the part thereof known as ‘the Volcker Rule’ in particular, have raised a basic question: “Can a banking institution subject to the Volcker Rule (which is virtually every banking institution in the U.S.) continue to make and enforce hedge fund and private equity fund secured loans?”

The SEC’s Private Equity ‘Initiative’ Leaves No Stone Unturned: Time to Take A Hard Look at Your Compliance Programs

May 2013 | Lorelei D. Cisne, Arnall Golden Gregory LLP


In March, the SEC settled two enforcement actions involving private equity. The two actions are just the latest indicators of the SEC’s wide ranging and close scrutiny of the private equity industry, which has been ongoing for some time. We are hearing multiple speeches by SEC Staff focused on perceived compliance problems in the private equity industry. Focusing on both registered and unregistered investment advisers, the SEC has expressed concern with virtually every type of violation, large and small, of which a private equity investment adviser is capable. From the manner in which the offering is conducted to violations of fiduciary duties - improper valuations of portfolio assets, conflicts of interest, favouring some clients over others, improper use of unregistered broker-dealers and finders, general solicitation in private placements, inaccurate disclosures – nothing is being overlooked.

Private Equity Funds in the Cayman Islands

March 2013 | Neal Lomax, James Wauchope, Julian Fletcher, Robet Duggan, Alex Last and Simon Thomas, Mourant Ozannes


This briefing explains the attractions for international managers, sponsors and investors of the Cayman Islands as the jurisdiction in which to domicile a private equity fund.

Are Family Funds a Threat to Private Equity Funds?

January 2013 | Mark Davis, Mark Selinger and Eleanor West, McDermott Will & Emery


For most of the past two decades, private equity (PE) funds have had only two types of competition: strategic investors and each other. Special purpose acquisition companies, business development companies and hedge fund side pockets all emerged during this period, but none have really challenged the primacy of PE funds. In the past few years, however, a new form of competitor has emerged: their own limited partners (LPs). To be more specific, the threat is coming from high net worth (HNW) families that used to form the backbone of many PE funds, before institutional money came pouring in.

Aircraft Finance — A New Opportunity for Private Equity and Hedge Funds?

June 2012 | Michael C. Mulitz, Daniel J. Hartnett, Willys H. Schneider and Dr. Thomas A. Jesch, LL.M., Kaye Scholer


According to the Federal Aviation Administration’s ? ‘FAA Aerospace Forecast (Fiscal Years 2011–2031),’ the commercial air carrier industry will grow by a remarkable 3.7% over the next five years. System capacity in available seat miles – the overall yardstick for how busy aviation is on a global scale – will increase 4.5% in 2011 and is expected by the FAA to grow thereafter at an average annual rate of 3.6% through 2031.

The Use of Side Letters to Limited Partnership Agreements

March 2012 | Rob Blackstein and Myron Dzulynsky, Gowlings


A number of private equity funds and hedge funds are structured as limited partnerships that are governed by the terms of a limited partnership agreement (an ‘LPA’). A recurring theme in private equity fund investing is the use of ‘side letters’ between individual limited partners and the general partner of the fund. Side letters can range in scope from administrative matters to providing substantive rights to limited partners. Questions and issues inevitably arise as to the type of provisions that can be included in a side letter (which, in most cases only benefit the recipient of the side letter) as opposed to being incorporated into the limited partnership agreement itself (which generally benefit all limited partners of the fund).

Islamic Private Equity and Venture Capital

April 2011 | Ahmad Lutfi Abdull Mutalip, Azmi & Associates


In Islam, money is not a commodity and cannot be traded for profits. It is just a medium of exchange and it stores value. Money, therefore, must be invested in projects and ventures for the generation of activities, for the benefit of mankind and in the process, for profit.

AIFMD May Restrict EU Investors' Access to Private Equity

December 2010 | Brendan McMahon, James Greig and Ashley Coups, PricewaterhouseCoopers


The leading global private equity managers, in terms of funds raised and diversification of assets, are predominantly based outside the EU, either in North America or elsewhere. Indeed, the private equity managers that are most attractive to investors today are often located within emerging markets. But how will such third-country managers access European institutional capital following implementation of the Alternative Investment Fund Managers directive (AIFMD)? Indeed, given the challenges created by the AIFMD, will they want to?

Buddy, Can You Spare a Dime?

November 2010 | John Kuhl and Amy Wells, Cox Castle & Nicholson LLP


During challenging economic times, investors in real estate joint ventures need to be creative and flexible when considering strategies to preserve the viability of the venture and its projects. This is especially true when it comes to deciding if and how additional capital should be raised, if that becomes necessary to see the venture through difficulty.

Collateral Damage – The Impact of the Real Estate Downturn on Venture Capital Funds and their Investors

October 2010 | David Riley, Morrison & Foerster LLP


The recent real estate downturn that impacted the US and global economies has reached far beyond the real estate and mortgage finance sectors themselves. Within the private investment fund world, one would assume that real estate funds and distressed debt funds would bear the brunt of the economic crisis of the last two years. However, this has not been the case – instead, the crisis has spread well beyond these traditional boundaries and has affected private investment funds in other sectors as well as the investors in these funds.

Still Life in the FoFs Model

September 2010 | Katharina Lichtner, Capital Dynamics


Recently, voices have been heard in the market claiming that private equity funds of funds are dead. Those voices generally argue that an expected decline in returns will put more pressure on limited partners (LPs) to save costs by investing in funds themselves and they assume that the decline in overall fundraising levels alleviates access problems, which was one of the reasons why LPs have worked with funds of funds in the past.

Aligning Interests

August 2010 | Alex Frew McMillan, The Institutional Real Estate Letter - Asia Pacific


The ties that bind the limited partners that invest in real estate funds to the general partners that manage them have been worn hair-thin by the financial crisis. How can the two 'sides' best work together now? Before the financial crisis, it was not unusual for general partners (GPs) to create funds that were targeting equity commitments of US$1 billion, US$3 billion, US$5 billion – and still be oversubscribed.

Private Equity Tax Becomes More Onerous

August 2010 | Judith Daly, Liang Goh, Robert Mellor and Jason Silverman, PricewaterhouseCoopers


As we all know, the complexity and administrative burden of the global tax systems facing tax directors is at an all-time high and continues on the ascent. With deficits increasing in most parts of the world, in part due to the global financial crisis, governments are focusing on expanding revenue streams and on greater regulation and transparency. A key industry that governments around the world are looking for 'donations' from is private equity.

The Role of Venture Capital Model in an Islamic Economic System

July 2010 | Kashif Nisar, Islamic Finance News


Since their inception, Islamic banks have been criticised for not using participatory (profit and loss sharing) modes of financing such as musharakah and mudharabah. Generally, scholars argue that participatory financing is the key to achieve the main goal of equitable distribution of wealth in society. There has been little progress in this area and Islamic banks still heavily rely on less risky financing modes such as murabahah and Ijarah.

Investors Feel the Heat as LPs Seek Safe Funds

June 2010 | Deepti Chaudhary, Livemint


Venture capital and private equity (PE) firms are finding it increasingly difficult to raise money from their backers – limited partners (LPs) – who are becoming more demanding about the current models of return and the safety of their cash.

Balancing Act

May 2010 | Alastair O’Dell, Engaged Investor


All the traditional asset classes, such as equities and property, in which pension funds invest, share an underlying flaw: the investor can only profit when asset values increase. As we have seen over the last couple of years, this is far from guaranteed.

Coping with the Hangover

May 2010 | Joseph Mariathasan, IPA


The private equity industry is currently experiencing an adjustment phase after a period of excess. For those who are able to recover quickly from the hangover, there are certainly opportunities that are worth considering, but many of the current generation of firms will find it difficult to survive in their current form.

2010: Outlook for Private Equity

April 2010 | Ernst & Young


The PE industry’s agility and resilience in adapting to the adverse market conditions of the last two years will serve it well as the market continues to recover. So far, the outlook for 2010 is positive, with leverage returning to some markets, the value of acquisitions increasing and exit opportunities on the rise.

Private Equity in Africa: Lessons Learned

April 2010 | Carolyn Campbell, Emerging Capital Partners


Private equity investment in Africa has been active for many years, with solid track records emerging in the last decade. The most successful deployment of private equity in Africa has applied best practices, including identifying risks, defining the path to liquidity, and anticipating changes in judicial and regulatory frameworks. Understanding these factors is critical to ensuring that private equity investments in Africa will generate attractive returns over time.

Asia-Pacific's Private Equity Re-Emergence

February 2010 | Honson To, KPMG (China)


After the initial bout of finger-pointing recriminations about the risk management failings which precipitated the credit crisis, debate soon turned to when the recovery might be expected to come. Now, hardly a day goes by without some form of significant comment about the march out of recession and who may lead that march.

Under Control

February 2010 | Angela Spiteri Paris, Funds Europe


Emerging economies now capture a larger share of global private equity activity than ever before and the markets are quickly maturing as investors take more controlling stakes in companies. Statistics from the Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (EMPEA) showed that the emerging markets share of global private equity fundraising has risen from 5% in 2004 to 20% as of June 2009 and from 7% to 24% of global private equity investment totals during the same period.

When the Money Runs Out

January 2010 | Vicky Meek, emerging Private Equity


We now have confirmation of what everyone has been living through: fundraising and investment levels in emerging markets fell by over 50% in the first half of 2009 compared to the same period in 2008, according to the latest figures put out by the Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (EMPEA). A total of 84 emerging market funds raised US$16 billion in the first six months of 2009, way down on the US$36 billion garnered in H1 2008. Investment figures tell the same story.

A Sleeping Giant

January 2010 | Raymond Fazzi, Financial Advisor Magazine


For socially responsible investors who have been trying to round out their portfolios with allocations in REITs or other real estate investments, the landscape may seem awfully barren right now. As hard as investors may look, for example, they are not going to find any US REITs that specifically label themselves as “green” or “socially responsible”. Even traditional mutual funds have little to offer.

New PE Firms Hedge Bets with Pledge Funds

December 2009 | Shraddha Nair & N. Sundaresha Subramanian, Livemint


A fund without a fund is an oxymoron – but not in the increasingly crowded world of private equity (PE) and venture capitalism. Financiers are using so-called fundless structures as their calling card to enter India, where an estimated 350-400 PE funds are already jostling for space. Jaganath Swamy, a former McKinsey and Company consultant and a Wharton MBA, has used one such structure when he headed back to India after a short stint with a large PE fund in New York. He chose to launch a pledge fund after he saw that a number of limited partners (LPs) in the US were unhappy with India-focused funds.

The Dodo of Private Equity Real Estate

November 2009 | David Schaefer


The dodo (raphus cucullatus) was a flightless bird native to the island of Mauritius. It stood about a metre tall, weighed about 20kg, lived on fruit and nested on the ground. The dodo has been extinct since the mid-to-late 17th century. It is commonly used as the archetype of an extinct species because its extinction occurred during recorded human history and was directly attributable to human activity. The phrase “to go the way of the dodo” means to become extinct or obsolete, to fall out of common usage or practice, or to become a thing of the past.

Still in the Closet

November 2009 | Nazneen Halim, Islamic Finance Asia


Private equity – be it Islamic or otherwise – is not dissimilar to the perfect marriage. Both parties enter into an agreement for better or for worse and stick through it. More popularly known as venture capital in the western world, private equity is slated to be the new frontier for Islamic finance.

The Local Edge: How LatAm Funds Can Compete

October 2009 | Eurekahedge


In the real estate world, the mantra is “position, position, position”. The same may be said for hedge funds based in Latin America. Proximity to the real action gives local managers an advantage over funds managed at a distance. We would not have said this in the mid-1990s when Latin America was an intense focus of investor interest in major financial centres and there was a proliferation of emerging markets mutual funds. It was perceived that the best perspective was achieved from a distance (on high?) looking towards the region from the northern hemisphere where one could observe matters without all the baggage that local investors and naysayers brought to the process.

Asia Buyouts Return To Strength

October 2009 | Wietske Blees, emerging Private Equity


There is no doubt that Asia has felt the force of the global economic crisis. As credit conditions have tightened, deal flow across the region has grounded to a virtual halt. At the same time, those initial public offering windows that were previously available have been firmly shut, meaning private equity investors looking for an exit will have to rely on strategic buyers themselves in equally short supply.

Meeting in the Middle

October 2009 | Adrian Rainey, Taylor Wessing


For so long at opposite ends of the investment spectrum, private equity (PE) and venture capital (VC) are increasingly converging as the hunt for returns forces the adoption of new strategies. Until recently, the idea that PE funds and VC funds could be looking for returns in the same areas would have seemed as improbable as the collapse of Lehman Brothers. The divergence of PE and VC as asset classes began so long ago and had become so pronounced that only the more experienced players in the field remembered that the terms were virtually synonymous until the early-1990s. However, the world has changed and we have seen the beginning, at least, of a convergence at the boundary between PE and VC.

Best Bet for Alignment?

September 2009 | Martin Steward, Investment & Pensions Europe


Private equity has always thought of itself as the sober end of asset management. In a perfect world, this is how all companies would be managed – lean decision-making bodies focused on well-defined objectives, perfectly aligning capital with business management, away from the short-termism of public markets.

Steady in the Storm with Regional Opportunities

September 2009 | Damian Hampson, Alternative Latin Investor


After a decade of steady growth, Central America is weathering the global financial downturn comparatively well and continues to offer regional opportunities for private equity. Historically, this small, diversified region has suffered from armed conflict, political instability, weak institutions and a lack of legal frameworks and enforcement. However, stable democratic governments allied with disciplined fiscal policies brought an unprecedented period of growth in the past decade with steady growth rates on average above 5%.

Equity Investments – VC Funds Bet Big on Listed Firms

July 2009 | Sanat Vallikappen, Mint


The non-existent primary market for equities over the better part of last year may have delayed at least five exits for Sequoia Capital India Advisors Pvt Ltd, but that has not stopped the Indian arm of the Silicon Valley-based venture firm from trying its hand at something new. Sequoia has been aggressively investing in listed companies since October, rather uncharacteristic for a firm that has been doing only private market deals since it started investing in India in 2000.

PE Funds Choose Open Markets to Exit; They are Making Money Too

July 2009 | Madhav A Chanchani, VCCircle.com


Going by the state of capital markets in the early months of 2009, it really did not look like 2009 will be the year of exits for private equity (PE) funds. But if the recent market action is any indication, this may well be the year of open market exits. PE funds like ChrysCapital, Citi Venture Capital International (CVCI), Sequoia Capital India, 2i Capital, IL&FS Investment Managers (IIML) and the 3i Group have sold stakes in their portfolio companies either partially or fully.

Secondary Sales in PE to Boom in 2009, LP's See Huge Discounts to NAVs

May 2009 | Shrija Agrawal, VCCircle.com


When the economic downturn is telling on one's existing portfolio, what are the options left with the private equity investors? Either stay with the company and ride the downturn, or sell them to any other buyer and cut your profits (or losses). And this is likely to generate a lot of interest in the private equity secondary market too.

Pre-IPO Deals Haunt Companies

May 2009 | Sanat Vallikappen, Mint


Investments made by private equity funds, hedge funds and other investment vehicles in companies that had been planning to raise money from the capital markets through initial public offerings (IPOs) have come back to haunt the founders of many such firms. Companies owe their investors at least Rs4,000 crore for their inability to come out with IPOs within a specified time frame, a precondition for such investments, according to a Mint analysis of data provided by Nexgen Capitals Ltd, the investment banking arm of Delhi-based stock broker SMC Global Securities Ltd.

Secondary Market for Private Equity Developing in India

April 2009 | Sanat Vallikappen, Mint


Investors in private equity funds, known as limited partners or LPs, are sensing opportunities to buy-out the positions or commitments to private equity managers from other LPs that want to limit their exposure to private equity, or do not have the money to meet their so-called unfunded commitments. In industry parlance, such deals are known as secondaries and private equity managers are referred to as general partners or GPs.

Venture Capital Fundraising Activity Slows Considerably in 1Q2009

April 2009 | National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) and Thomson Reuters


Just 40 venture capital funds raised US$4.3 billion in the first quarter of 2009, according to Thomson Reuters and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA). This level represented the smallest number of venture funds raising money in a single quarter since the third quarter of 2003. Dollars commitments however, reflected a slight increase over the previous quarter when US$3.5 billion was raised.

The Known Unknown

April 2009 | Professor Andrew Baum, Property Funds Research


Rating agencies appear to have played a leading role in the current crisis that the real estate market in the UK finds itself in by overestimating the credit risk of property-backed debt instruments. The public should be able to expect – and to be protected by – the objective exercise of professional judgement by a responsible and regulated group, and the rating agencies failed in this regard. Did valuers also contribute to the crisis, by failing to discourage banks from lending high proportions of the ramped price of property, and by overestimating the value of property assets and property funds?

VCs Focus on Capital Efficiency in New Deals

March 2009 | Namitha Jagadeesh, Mint


The economic slowdown has India’s venture capital firms (VCs) focusing more on shepherding firms they have invested in, and going slow on chasing new deals. “In the first half of the year, we will focus on existing businesses, and the second half depends on how the first half goes,” says Sandeep Murthy, partner, Kleiner, Perkins, Caufield and Byers, and Sherpalo Ventures.

Heads-up Private Equity: Fresh Approach to Value Growth Needed

March 2009 | V Rory Jones, Business Value Associates


For too long, private equity firms have been managed as investment vehicles, and not enough like businesses that need to succeed in a maturing market. The time is ripe for that to change and, to a large extent, that change is being foisted on today’s players. In fact there is a good case to be made for today’s private equity to take some of the medicine they have for so long told others to swallow.

PE Companies Wooing Limited Partners

February 2009 | Sanat Vallikappen, Livemint.com


As private equity (PE) firms find it difficult to raise capital in difficult economic times, they are offering limited partners (LPs) more incentives to put in their money. Making the most of the situation, LPs are now demanding a greater say in the use of and returns on the money they commit to PE firms. LPs are entities that include public and corporate pension funds, insurance companies, high net worth individuals, universities and other endowments that are the source of money for PE firms, which then establish funds to invest.

Venture Investment in Clean Technology Accelerates Significantly in 2008 Despite Economic Uncertainty

February 2009 | National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) and PricewaterhouseCoopers


Venture capitalists invested US$28.3 billion in 3,808 deals in 2008, marking the first yearly decline of total investments since 2003, according to the MoneyTree Report by PricewaterhouseCoopers and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA), based on data from Thomson Reuters. Venture investments in 2008 represented an 8% decrease in dollars and a 4% decrease in deal volume from 2007. Investments in the fourth quarter of 2008 totalled US$5.4 billion in 818 deals, the lowest amount of dollars invested since the first quarter of 2005 and a 26% drop from the US$7.3 billion invested in the third quarter of 2008.

Venture Capitalists Predict a Difficult 2009

January 2009 | National Venture Capital Association


US venture capitalists are forecasting a difficult 2009 for the country’s economy, the capital markets and the venture industry as the global financial crisis takes its toll on the entrepreneurial ecosystem. According to the respondents of the third annual National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) Predictions Survey, the coming year will be met with a slowdown in investing across most sectors and a continued weakened exit market. However, most venture capitalists surveyed predict a recovery in 2010 when the initial public offering (IPO) market is expected to re-open and those companies and venture firms that weathered the storm will emerge strongly.

Covering All Bases

January 2009 | Vicky Meek, emerging Private Equity


One of the main types of insurance private equity houses will look at is that covering management liability, typically covered by directors and officers’ insurance (D&O). D&O covers any individuals with a board seat on any of their portfolio companies. As board members, these individuals’ fiduciary duty is to act in the best interests of the company. A common issue is one in which someone questions whether a private equity house representative has made a decision that benefits the private equity firm rather than the portfolio company. D&O also covers other liabilities associated with being a company director, such as an instance in which board members are sued in the event of an environmental problem.

Investors Look to High-yield Debt Funds

January 2009 | Mard Naman, High Return Quarterly


The ongoing credit crunch has led to a huge number of high-yield real estate debt funds trying to cash in on the distress: There are now close to 70 such funds, and they are attempting to raise US$40 billion. Some are veteran investors that have operated in real estate debt for 20 years or more, but many others are newcomers. The funds use different strategies, usually including some combination of CMBS, mezzanine, preferred equity, whole loans, B-notes, RMBS and, increasingly, originating new loans.

Islamic Private Equity Funds

January 2009 | Paul Wouters


When people talk about private equity, they are referring to shareholdings in companies that are not listed on a public stock exchange. Non-listed companies are not subject to the same level of government regulation and disclosure rules as listed ones. Since there also is no “daily market” where the stock is regularly traded, private equity is less liquid than publicly traded equity. And anyhow, those smaller companies have far less outstanding stocks to be traded or negotiated, leaving little room for sufficient volatility. Moreover, the transfer of private equity in such companies is mostly regulated by law, the articles of association or even stipulated in shareholders’ agreements.

Asia: Lessons to be Learned

December 2008 | Rachel Alembakis, emerging Private Equity


Heterogeneous is not an adjective one would use to describe the private equity industries in the Asian region. Quite the opposite in fact; countries in the Asian region range from more developed markets such as Japan, Australia and Hong Kong and Singapore to up-and-coming countries such as China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. The diverse histories, political, regulatory and economic structures offer investors a plenitude of opportunities, but also mean association bodies play a vital role in transmitting education, training the next generation of private equity funds, and lobbying governments for conditions to encourage continued development of the industry not in just their own countries, but throughout the region.

Mapping the Recovery – New Strategies for Private Equity Markets

December 2008 | Economist Intelligence Unit


With the financial crisis continuing to wreak havoc in many of the world’s economies, access to capital is becoming harder and dearer. Despite heavy injections of liquidity from governments, lending has slowed to a trickle across most industries and markets. Bankers’ reluctance to offer finance stems from widespread uncertainty about the length, intensity and consequences of the current crisis. This poses significant challenges to the private equity industry, which has enjoyed unprecedented growth over the past decade thanks partly to unfettered access to cheap credit. Private equity firms are likely to feel the impact of tighter lending terms both at the level of their deal flow, and in their ability to manage the companies they have acquired. This is a market context that will require discipline, judicious planning and innovation from private equity practitioners if they are to survive the financial crunch and emerge stronger.

Venture Capital Investment Holds in US$7 Billion Range in 3Q2008 despite Turmoil in the Financial Markets According to the MoneyTree Report

December 2008 | PricewaterhouseCoopers, National Venture Capital Association and Thomson Reuters


Venture capitalists invested US$7.1 billion in 907 deals in the third quarter of 2008, according to the MoneyTree™ Report from PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) based on data provided by Thomson Reuters. Quarterly investment activity was down 7% compared to the second quarter of 2008 when US$7.7 billion was invested in 1033 deals. Despite the turmoil in the global financial markets in the US, venture capital investing remained within historical norms in the third quarter of 2008.

Equitable Terms – A Principle worth Defending as Funds Proliferate

December 2008 | Steve Hays, Bellier Financial


The number of private equity real estate funds pursuing opportunistic returns amid the fallout from the credit crunch continues to grow rapidly. In a recent position paper, fund of funds manager Clerestory Capital Partners argues that “equitable terms” for all investors is a principle worth defending.

Venture Capital Performance Declines Slightly as of 2Q2008

November 2008 | Thomson Reuters and National Venture Capital Association


Venture capital performance showed positive returns across all investment horizons ending 30 June 2008, according to Thomson Reuters and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA). The one-year all venture private equity performance index (PEPI) showed the greatest change from 1Q2008, falling 8.2% to 5.1% in 2Q2008. Historically, short-term horizons show significant fluctuations quarter–over-quarter based on current exit market conditions. Overall, the closed IPO window in the second quarter did drive lower one-year return numbers. The next largest consecutive quarterly change occurred in the three-year time horizon where all venture PEPI decreased by 1.1% quarter-over-quarter. Five-year and ten-year performance also posted modest declines from the previous quarter, decreasing 0.2% and 0.6% percentage respectively. Twenty-year performance figures showed a small quarter-over-quarter increase to 16.9% from 16.8% in the first quarter.

Nothing But Net –Maximising the Impact of Private Equity Real Estate Fund Negotiations

October 2008 | Martin Rosenberg, The Townsend Group


The amount of capital being sought for high-return private equity real estate funds is at a record high. At the same time, many institutional investors are sidelined by the denominator effect or by a tactical decision to move slowly in an uncertain market that is awash in fund offerings. In this environment, many quality managers are struggling to reach fund-raising targets, and several of them have offered to improve terms in an effort to gain a competitive advantage over the field (or remain competitive with the field).

Emerging Markets Private Equity Fundraising on Course to Beat 2007 Totals: US$35 Billion Raised through June 2008

October 2008 | Eurekahedge


Emerging markets private equity fundraising is on track to significantly beat 2007 totals. Led by Emerging Asia, 104 funds dedicated to investments in emerging markets raised more than US$35 billion in capital in the first half of 2008, a 68% increase over the amount raised during the same period in 2007, according to the Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (EMPEA). The total value of private equity funds raised in the first two quarters of 2008 exceeds the US$33 billion raised during all of 2006.

Falling Markets Delay Private Equity Deals

October 2008 | Sanat Vallikappen, livemint.com


Stock markets that have fallen for most part of 2008 are delaying private equity, or PE, transactions and also increasing the use of convertible instruments where an investment is converted into equity at a later date at the prevailing price. The delay is because both the companies and investors are holding out for a better deal. For companies, a better deal means a higher valuation. For private equity firms, it means a lower valuation.

US Cleantech Investment Climbs 41% in 2Q2008 to Nearly US$1 Billion – the Highest Quarter on Record

October 2008 | Ernst & Young LLP


Venture capital investments in US cleantech companies grew by 41% to US$961.7 million in 2Q2008, up from US$683.5 million in 1Q2008, according to an Ernst & Young report based on data from Dow Jones VentureOne. This is the highest total cleantech investment on record, and comes amidst a quarter in which overall venture capital investment was down by nearly 8%. Year-on-year cleantech investment follows this upward trend, increasing 83% from 2Q2007.

Alternatives Investors Look for More than Returns

September 2008 | Justin Ong and Darren Lim, PricewaterhouseCoopers (Singapore)


Asia has experienced rapid growth in alternative investments in recent years, fuelled by investors’ search for increased alpha in emerging markets and by institutional players broadening their investment horizons to diversify geographical risk. Assets allocated to hedge funds, private equity and, increasingly, real estate and infrastructure funds have seen significant growth. This has led to alternative assets starting to become part of the investment mainstream.

The Good and The Great

September 2008 | Dr Ahmed Heikal, Citadel Capital


As the pace of business in the Middle East and North Africa accelerates, family businesses are looking to raise funds, sell out, restructure or offload non-core assets. Deregulation is opening new opportunities for Greenfield investment. Governments are increasingly willing to divest assets in privatisation sales. The list goes on. Going forward, this means a growing number of private equity deals will originate from situations in which trust, transparency and good corporate governance are vital. As origination streams diversify beyond the usual sources, savvy industry players will embrace the reality that the full alignment of interests of all parties is becoming the key to sustainable growth.

West Africa Gets Exciting

September 2008 | Vicky Meek, emerging Private Equity


With limited partner interest increasing towards Africa as a whole, it’s hardly surprising that West Africa is seeing a dramatic increase in funds being raised for investment there. It is, according to CDC investment manager and Togo national Jean-Marc Savi de Tove, “one of the most dynamic regions in Africa”.

Fundraisings, Investments, Exits All Down As Credit Crunch Bites

September 2008 | Asian Venture Capital Journal


Asian Venture Capital Journal (AVCJ) Research figures show that after a year of private equity industry upheaval, the Asia Pacific industry is at last registering the effects of the downturn in the asset class. Although private equity and VC capital under management across the region continues to grow, its rate of growth has slowed and almost every other industry metric is down on last year.

Venture Capital Investment Holds Steady at US$7.4 billion in 2Q2008

August 2008 | National Venture Capital Association, PricewaterhouseCoopers Private Equity & Venture Capital Practice, Thomson Reuters


Venture capitalists invested US$7.4 billion in 990 deals in the second quarter of 2008, according to the MoneyTree™ Report from PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA) based on data provided by Thomson Reuters. Quarterly investment activity was essentially flat compared to the first quarter of 2008 when US$7.5 billion was invested in 977 deals. Growth in the clean technology and Internet-specific sectors contributed to the solid level of investing seen in the quarter.

Fund Administrators Open Doors on New Territories

August 2008 | Vicky Meek, emerging Private Equity


Fundraising in emerging markets has exploded. In 2003, just US$3.5 billion was committed to funds operating in emerging private equity markets, according to figures compiled by the Emerging Markets Private Equity Association (EMPEA); by 2007, that figure had shot up to nearly US$60 billion. It’s an incredible success story, and one that has gone far from unnoticed by private equity fund administrators seeking growth in new markets.

Ten Trends in Private Equity

July 2008 | Imad Ghandour, Gulf Capital


2007 was another stellar year for private equity (PE) in MENA. The billion dollar deal milestone was broken for the first time with the Egyptian Fertilizers Company deal. Fund-raising for existing funds remained strong, and the first billion dollar fund was raised. Exits, once a mirage, are becoming more common with 18 exits reported in 2007, up from six in 2005.

Venture Capitalists Around the Globe Identify Pockets of Technology Innovation

July 2008 | Deloitte LLP, National Venture Capital Association


While venture capitalists continue to view the US as the global leader in technology development and innovation, they also recognise specific pockets of technology innovation worldwide, according to a survey by Deloitte LLP and the National Venture Capital Association (NVCA).

Secondary Prices Take a Tumble

July 2008 | emerging Private Equity


With a 78% leap in emerging market PE fundraising last year (up to US$59 billion), secondary investors and intermediaries are preparing for an increase in deal flow in this space. Emerging markets exposure is already becoming an accepted part of the secondary landscape, as Thomas Liaudet, principal at Campbell Lutyens, which acts as an intermediary on secondary sales, explains: “More and more frequently we see an emerging markets component to portfolio sales. And we see a bigger component of emerging markets funds in the portfolios. We feel this is because we have seen more and more funds raised for emerging markets and the secondary market is a derivative of the primary.”

Negotiating Early Stage Financing: Getting Your Piece of Pie

June 2008 | IVCJ’s PE Weekly Review


The burgeoning class of Indian entrepreneurs is making a beeline for VC funding to kick-start their ventures. It becomes an imperative to foray into the mindset of the venture capitalist to know what clicks with him. At a conference on private equity for IT/ITeS & Technology held by IVCJ in May, at the Hotel Leela Kempinski, Mumbai, some of the prominent figures of the VC community such as Srini Vudayagiri, MD, Lightspeed Venture Partner; Manik Arora, founder and MD, IDG Ventures India; Sandeep Singhal, Nexus India Capital Advisors Pvt Ltd; and Tejus Sawijani, partner, Singularity Ventures delved into what goes into procuring early stage financing.

What 2008 Promises for Private Equity in Realty

April 2008 | Sourav Goswami, Managing Director Walton Street Capital India


After the excesses of investing at dizzying valuations throughout 2007, many of us in the Indian real estate private equity arena are now taking stock of where we are and where we are going in the year ahead in 2008.

Private Equity – Modern-Day Musharakah?

March 2008 | Omar Shaikh, Ernst & Young


Islamic finance has been widely acclaimed as the fastest-growing sector within the financial arena. Industry reports indicate the size of global Islamic assets to be over US$500 billion, with growth rates of 15% to 20%. Much of this growth and development has been within the debt and related capital markets sectors such as sukuk and commodity murabahah.

Private Equity: Changing Markets, Changing Deals

February 2008 | John W Kaufmann and Matthew Hamm Kirkpatrick & Lockhart Preston Gates Ellis LLP


Private equity firms, having experienced a record-breaking first half of 2007, were among the first to feel the effects last summer when the credit markets came to a standstill.

Private Equity: Flexible Funds

January 2008 | Mark Davis and Eleanor West, Taylor Wessing


The meltdown in the US subprime mortgage market has prompted commentators to remark on the end of the abundant supply of cheap and easy debt and warn of tougher investment conditions for private equity funds. Summer jitters surrounding the failure by Deutsche Bank and JPMorgan to sell down £9 billion of senior debt underwritten in the acquisition by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts of Alliance Boots have reverberated into the UK private equity market. Concern gave way to alarm in the autumn following large losses suffered by some of the world's most influential lenders. US banks Citigroup and Merrill Lynch projected billion-dollar mortgage-related write-downs and HSBC revealed that it expects to write down US$925 million (£449.17 billion) of investment banking debt in the third quarter of 2007.

The Superb Performance of Islamic Equities

January 2008 | Research Team, Global Investment House


Over the last few years, financial institutions offering Islamic products have taken a number of important steps to keep pace with developments in the global private equity and venture capital industry. As private equity and venture capital investments become increasingly sophisticated and innovative and seek new pools of investors, including Islamic investors, growth in Islamic private equity and venture capital funds can be expected to mushroom.

An Overview of Global Private Equity Funds

December 2007 | Eurekahedge


The private equity industry has been on a tremendous expansionary cycle in recent years, following the technology sector-led slowdown between the years 2000 and 2003. For instance, for the year 2005 alone, industry estimates put the total amount of private equity fund raising at over USD230 billion (a 75% jump over the 2004 figure), and the total size of private equity investments at USD135 billion (up 20% on the previous year’s number).

An Indispensable Guide to Equity Investment in India

December 2007 | Eurekahedge


It is impossible to overlook the massive profits investors have earned in the Indian market over the past several years. However, beyond the tech-heavy activity that has driven much of these profits, there are many new and interesting areas that private equity and venture capital firms are now aggressively looking to take advantage of. The Indian market is certainly unique. A solid understanding of this market and some behavioural adjustments will be required from investment players who are new to India in order to maximise the returns for their investors. In addition to the required capital, proper research in a challenging market, subtle and savvy managerial skills, and a healthy dose of patience must also be invested to ensure success.

Islamic Private Equity and Real Estate Funds

December 2007 | Bernardo Vizcaino, Eurekahedge


Amongst the various asset classes on offer (from equity funds to alternatives), Islamic finance has developed a wide range of products in the areas of real estate and private equity. There are various reasons for this, but key drivers include the predilection of Shariah-compliant structures towards asset-backed investments, and more recently the burgeoning activity observed across the GCC region in these two asset classes.

Capital Flows in Real Estate Private Equity Funds

November 2007 | Eurekahedge


The real estate private equity fund market has dominated the real estate landscape and is arguably the most significant driver of real estate transactions today. Through the first half of 2007, capital flows to real estate were still very strong. Our survey respondents have raised more than US$225 billion of capital since 1991 with more than US$38 billion raised in 2006 and US$23 billion raised in the first half of 2007. An additional 35 funds with targeted capital of US$35 billion are in the process of being raised. Considering the returns on alternative investments over the past year, real estate private equity performed comparatively well on a risk-adjusted basis. In light of the strong fund performance, 84% of our survey respondents believe that capital flows to real estate will increase or at least remain at the same high level for the balance of 2007 and for 2008.

Fund Set-up in Singapore

October 2007 | Nigel Poh, Eurekahedge


Differing definitions of a hedge fund abound (which are sometimes confused with other funds such as private equity or real estate investment pools) but for our purposes, and with the view of setting up an international hedge fund in Singapore, the following assumptions are made: that it is deemed to be a “collective investment scheme” as described by the Securities and Futures Act of Singapore, and will have a strategy of investing in instruments where valuations are readily discernable with minimal dispute (such as listed equities, bonds); and that the manager is remunerated generally on a manager fee based on the entire value of assets under management, as well as an incentive fee based on a proportion of profitable capital gains made from those assets. The offerings are not meant for the general public but for accredited investors and operate within strict limits to general solicitation and advertising.

Islamic Private Equity Outgrowing Conventional Private Equity

October 2007 | Catharina-Sophie Bescht, CORECAP


Islamic finance has witnessed tremendous growth over the past years, both in terms of the growth of the entire industry and in terms of the development of new and more sophisticated products that meet the increasing yet unmatched demand for structured products and comply with the principles of Shariah law. The global Islamic finance industry is valued today at approximately US$800 billion.

Grasping Transparency and Governance

August 2007 | PricewaterhouseCoopers


It is well known that the private equity industry is in the midst of a dramatic evolution in size and influence. Less well appreciated is the beginning of a sea change in transparency and corporate governance. This will transform it from a low profile, private industry dominated by a deal-making culture into one that conforms to a far greater extent with the norms of the public-listed markets.

Venture Capitalists Ready Wallets to Revive Funding for Start-Ups

July 2007 | Snigdha Sengupta, Rana Rosen, livemint.com


Venture capital firms, led by Silicon Valley’s best of breed, have raised close to US$2 billion (Rs8,000 crore) for investment in India since January 2006, according to informal industry estimates. The money will be invested in seed and early-stage companies over the next four to five years. This is indeed small compared with the estimated US$10 billion that private equity firms have allocated for India during the same period, but an important step towards reviving start-up funding in the country. Start-up funding almost disappeared after venture capitalists burnt their fingers in the 2000-01 Internet bust.

American Islamic Private Equity Transactions: Successes, Challenges and Opportunities

July 2007 | Umar F Moghul, Murtha Cullina


Although the bulk of activity and growth in Islamic finance lies in the Muslim world, the US remains an important market for many Islamic investors because of its depth and diversity. Many foreign-based institutions that have long invested in the US continue to do so, and many new, significant entries have been made over the last few years. As Islamic finance has grown both quantitatively and qualitatively worldwide, so have the number and sophistication of its participants.

Announcing the Launch of Eureka Private Equity

June 2007 | Eurekahedge


Eureka Private Equity is a comprehensive online portal providing one-stop service for private equity and venture capital professionals. This portal provides daily news stories about the global private equity and venture capital industry. In addition to the free news service, Eureka Private Equity also has a global suite of private equity fund databases covering 5,000 funds across all regions in this alternative investment universe – a significant increase of over 250% since it was first launched in 2005.

Asian Private Equity – A Diverse Landscape

June 2007 | Linklaters


Asia has perhaps the richest and most diverse cultural, linguistic and political environment in the world. This diversity provides a wealth of opportunities for the expanding private equity community, but also some formidable challenges. Some private equity firms have responded to this diversity by focusing on Asia’s more developed markets, or on those where they have specific, in-house expertise. Others believe that, despite the challenges of adapting the private equity model to diverse jurisdictions, the value to be gained from such an approach outweighs the structural and political risks.

Shariah-compliant Private Equity Funds: What Private Equity Managers Need to Know

June 2007 | Marwan Al-Turki, Debevoise & Plimpton LLP


The forging of new relationships with Middle Eastern investors (beyond those with the region’s merchant families and investment houses which have, for some time, been investors in the private equity asset class) has brought with it new and complex issues of culture, commerce and religion. In light of the compelling size of the pool of available Islamic capital estimated at between US$300-500 billion, private equity funds and their general partners (GPs) may be well advised to learn about accommodating the concerns of Islamic investors.

Emerging Markets Private Equity: The Current Landscape and the Road Ahead

May 2007 | Emerging Markets Private Equity Association


Fundraising for emerging markets private equity in 2006 appears on track to match or beat the record-breaking 2005 numbers. In 2005, fundraising topped US$22 billion, or almost four times the US$5.8 billion raised in 2004. For year 2006 through 1 November, EMPEA estimates that US$21.9 billion has been raised already (see Figure 1).

Private Equity’s Impact as a UK Financial Service

April 2007 | BVCA


The BVCA represents the vast majority of UK-based private equity and venture capital firms and their advisors. The UK private equity industry is the largest and most dynamic in Europe accounting for more than half of the whole European market, and is second in size only to the United States on the world stage. This means the BVCA is today the single most authoritative voice of the UK industry when speaking with the media or negotiating with government, Parliament, European Commission and Parliament, regulators and other statutory bodies.

Emerging Markets Private Equity Funds Raise over US$33 Billion in 2006

April 2007 | EMPEA


Robust growth in emerging markets private equity fundraising continued in 2006, albeit at a less explosive pace than in 2005. 162 emerging markets private equity funds raised US$33 billion in capital commitments in 2006, representing a 29% increase over the US$25.8 billion raised in 2005. In 2005, fundraising quadrupled from the US$6.5 billion raised in 2004. (See Figure 1 for historic fundraising totals 2003-2006.)

An Overview of Global Private Equity Funds

February 2007 | Rajeev Baddepudi, Eurekahedge


The private equity industry has been in a tremendous expansionary cycle in recent years, following the technology sector led slowdown between the years 2000 and 2003. For instance, for the year 2005 alone, industry estimates put the total amount of private equity funds raised at over USD230 billion (a 75% jump over the 2004 figure) and the total size of private equity investments at USD135 billion (up 20% on the previous year’s number).

Eurekahedge Launches Inaugural Private Equity Directories

February 2007 | Eurekahedge


Following the launch of Eurekahedge’s online private equity fund databases, Eurekahedge is proud to announce the release of the hardcopy directories – Fund of Private Equity Funds Directory 2007 and Global Private Equity Fund Directory 2007 – which contain 650 and 3,000 funds respectively, and are the largest hard copy resources available of this type.

An Overview of Funds of Private Equity Funds

January 2007 | Rajeev Baddepudi, Eurekahedge


The inaugural 2006 edition of the Eurekahedge Fund of Private Equity Funds Directory contains information on 654 funds managing US$167 billion in assets, as we endeavour to serve as the market-monitor for another growing segment of the alternative investments landscape. Figure 1, charting the growth (by number of funds) of the funds of private equity funds (FoPEFs) in our databases over the last decade, corroborates this.

Investing in Private Equities through a Fund of Funds

December 2006 | Fort Washington


Over the last ten years, private equity has increasingly become a significant portion of most institutional portfolios. The private equity class is defined as investments in private companies or partnerships that invest in them. During the period from 1996 through year-end 2005, investors committed nearly US$1.6 trillion to private equity funds. Despite a drop in private equity commitments following the bursting of the technology bubble in 2000, investors averaged more than US$166 billion in annual commitments to the asset class in 2003-2005.

Overview of the Asia-Pacific Private Equity Market

September 2006 | Hugh Dyus, Macquarie Bank


The Asia-Pacific private equity market has emerged over the past five years as a market of increasing interest to international investors. Asia Pacific has become an increasingly important destination for international capital as a result of structural changes brought about by the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis and ongoing liberalisation efforts, as well as continuing rapid economic growth and increasing globalisation. The Asia-Pacific private equity market has matured with the emergence of well-established fund managers, with experienced teams and proven track records.

Private Equity for Private Investors

September 2006 | Hans van Swaay, Jacques Chillemi, Pictet


For most private investors, the private equity market is not easy to break into. And for those who get in, there are many pitfalls, not least the high cost of most vehicles catering to smaller, private investors. Private equity is a hot topic today because of its terrific performance over the last few years, the ever larger deals being pulled off and the creation of publicly-listed retail vehicles by big US brand names like KKR, Apollo, Blackstone, Carlyle, etc.

The Launch of the Global Private Equity Real Estate Fund Database and Directory

August 2006 | Eurekahedge


Eurekahedge announces the launch of a specialised private equity database: the Eurekahedge Global Private Equity Real Estate Fund Database and Directory. This product comprehensively covers 350 specialist real estate funds and will continue to grow with this fast developing part of the private equity industry.

Beyond Traditional Fund of Funds Benefits

June 2006 | André Frei and Michael Studer, Partners Group


The potential benefits of funds of funds are lively debated in the private equity industry. How can a fund of funds manager justify the additional fee layer? Do funds of funds deliver excess returns? We argue that fund of funds investors may indeed benefit from attractive risk-adjusted returns: firstly, because diversification does reduce volatility; and secondly, because diversification may even increase returns. Nevertheless, funds of funds managers that want to justify their services going forward will have to add value beyond the common claim for premier fund selection and diversification.

Middle East/Asia Private Equity: A New Bridge?

June 2006 | Private Equity Asia


Asia is currently reaping the benefits of being the developed world’s emerging market of choice, with new billion-dollar funds, and now, big deals to match. Yet the Middle East, driven by a combination of rising oil prices and internal reform and revitalisation, is equally in the spotlight as a new cluster of high-growth economies. Add the fact that several of Asia’s prime investment destinations – especially India – are positioned to tap the dynamism in both regions, and there seems plenty of cause to link the two together. PEAsia talked to experts in both regions, for perspective on the new Middle Eastern/Asian private equity connection.

LBOs to Join Growth Deals in Chinese Private Equity

June 2006 | Simon Osborne, AsianInvestor


Monster transactions in China have recently monopolised the private equity headlines. Is the opportunity worthy of the hype? Despite many risks, a combination of liberalisation and investor innovation is widening the scope of possible activity, giving investors new ways to tap China’s growth story. Of the US$20 billion invested in Asian private equity transactions in 2005, US$5.75 billion was spent in the People’s Republic, and that inflow is weighted towards the leviathans.

Trends in the Asian Private Equity Space – 2005 in Review

May 2006 | Rajeev Baddepudi, Eurekahedge


To say that the Asian markets have been a hotbed of opportunities for investors of all stripes in the recent past would be to acknowledge the obvious. And yet, it is as good a starting point as any in reviewing the growth and performance of Asian private equity (PE) funds in 2005.

India – Is It For Real This Time Round?

February 2006 | Paul Parambi, Kotak Mahindra (UK) Ltd


The BSE Sensex, the benchmark of large-cap Indian stocks, has climbed vertiginously past 8,000, an appreciation of almost 80% from the troughs of 4,505 on 17 May 2004. Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) have poured in close to US$17 billion into the Indian equity markets since January 2004, over 44% of the cumulative foreign flows since the markets were opened to foreign investors in 1993. The Indian market is in the grip of a euphoria; often seen in the past 15 years, always holding promise, but seldom failing to disappoint. Therefore it is both natural and fair to question the nature and sustainability of the current Indian opportunity and what it holds for hedge funds.

Sopa Piranha – Near to the Madding Crowd

December 2005 | Mari Kooi, Wolf International


My tenth issue of Piranha Soup continues the theme of the ninth version. It was focused on rough times in fixed income, particularly credit derivatives. Now I turn to rough times in equities with an emphasis on whether it is time to enter the short side of the stock market. The madness of crowding into the "credit, energy, Asia, emerging markets" growth story will reach a point of froth this winter. Below I make a case for profit in short side beta and alpha.

Hedge Funds vs Private Equity Firms in the Alternative Investment Community

November 2005 | Jayesh Punater, Gravitas Technology


Hedge funds have led the charge in the alternative investment community as a viable and growing segment of the buy side/asset gathering industry. Some of the brightest and smartest people from the industry have not only started hedge funds, but lately have started large "institutional", multi-strategy funds that span the globe looking for opportunities in which to trade. However, lately, as a technology provider to this industry, we at Gravitas are noticing with increasing frequency, private equity firms "spinning out" of larger institutions and establishing their own identities. Furthermore, many "hybrids" have followed in their own rite.

Private Equity in Asia-Pacific

August 2005 | Eurekahedge


Private equity is a rapidly expanding industry in the Asia-Pacific region. It is estimated that there are over 500 private equity funds, managing over US$100 billion. They invest in sectors ranging from technology to healthcare. Some of the world's leading private equity funds are active in Asia. There are also some very large domestic private equity investors such as Government of Singapore Investment Corporation and JAFCO.

Convergence in Action

June 2005 | David Goldstein, White & Case


This is indeed a very special gathering; there are not many industry venues where both sides of the alternative asset management family are brought together to talk about matters in common. Of course, what we are here to talk about today is how these two disciplines are moving towards each other in many different ways - this is the notion of convergence. While this process is just getting underway in Asia, it is very far advanced in the US and Europe, and perhaps by discussing the trends we've seen you will have some insight into what may happen here.

Equity Long/Short - A Two-edged Sword

July 2004 | May Ho, JF Asset Management


Equity long/short strategy is a strategy through which a fund manager buys undervalued stocks which are expected to outperform, and short sells overvalued stocks which are expected to underperform. This type of portfolio is sometimes called “market neutral”, although strictly speaking a market neutral portfolio is achieved only if the long exposure balances the short exposure so as to eliminate systemic market risk. Some market neutral funds even go one step further to eradicate industry risk by making pair-wise bets within each sector, but such an objective can only be achieved if strict risk controls are kept constantly in place. Market neutral portfolios are perceived to be a lower risk type of hedge fund. In reality, however, most equity long/short funds tend to range between a slightly net short position to 100% net long, depending on whether the manager is bullish or bearish on the market, although recently some have widened those ranges.

Interview with Steven Diggle of Artradis Barracuda Fund

September 2002 | Matt Schmidt, Eurekahedge


Diggle has over 16 years of experience in trading equities and equity derivatives in both Asia and Europe. He was formerly Head of Asian Equity Derivative Trading as well as former Head of European Emerging Markets at Lehman. The Artradis Barracuda fund is an Asian equity arbitrage fund. It employs multi-strategy market neutral trades such as warrant arbitrage, index arbitrage, stock class arbitrage, convertible bond arbitrage, volatility arbitrage, volatility dispersion and dividend arbitrage.

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